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Multi-method dating of Grimaldi castle foundations in Antibes, France

Étude chronologique multi-méthode des soubassements du château Grimaldi à Antibes, France
Petra Urbanova, Eric Delaval, Philippe Lanos, Pierre Guibert, Philippe Dufresne, Claude Ney, Robert Thernot and Philippe Mellinand
p. 17-33

Abstracts

The foundations of Grimaldi castle in Antibes belonged originally to a vast monumental edifice of an unknown origin. No historical records that would allow establishing precise chronological framework of this building exist. Therefore, four approaches were combined in order to date its construction: relative chronology from archaeology with “physical” dating methods applied on building materials, e.g. archaeomagnetic dating of bricks and dating of mortars by optically stimulated luminescence using both the single grain and the multigrain technique. Whereas archaeomagnetic dating followed a well-established, reliable measurement protocol, dating of archaeological mortar by optically stimulated luminescence using the single grain technique represents quite new, exploratory approach that allows direct dating of the moment of edification. Luminescence dating showed that mortars were well bleached. Variations of the dose rate due to the heterogeneous distribution of radioelements in the matrix were observed. In the given context, none of the four approaches used would succeed to date the construction of the remains with certainty if they were used separately. Nevertheless, thanks to the mutual comparison of dating results, a reliable chronology have been established. The obtained results are in agreement and suggest the Grimaldi castle foundations were built between the second half of the first century and the second century A.D. Our interdisciplinary approach thus proves ancientness of the standing masonry and attests cultural and historical significance of the monument.

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Excerpt

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Outline

1. Introduction
Presentation of the archaeological site
Archaeological background
Objectives of the study
2. Materials and methods
Sampling
Dating of bricks by archaeomagnetism (AM)
Dating of mortars by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)
OSL sample preparation
OSL instrumentation, measurements and data evaluation
Dose rate determination, scanning electron microscopy and beta-imaging
3. Results and discussion
Dating of bricks by archaeomagnetism
Sampling on the field and specimen preparation
Magnetic measurements, demagnetization and anisotropy correction
Statistical analysis of the TRM
Archaeomagnetic dating results of bricks
Dating of mortars by optically stimulated luminescence (SG-OSL)
Preliminary tests
Archaeological dose determination
Microdosimetry caracteristics
Dose rate
SG-OSL dating results of mortars
4. Chronological synthesis and conclusion

First lines

1. Introduction

Presentation of the archaeological site

Antibes is a French municipality situated in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes - Côte d'Azur region at the Mediterranean seashore, 205 km from Marseille in the east and 23 km from Nice in the south-west. First traces of an organized human settlement appear in the Early Iron Age with a dwelling implanted in the Rocher (the rock cliff in the actual city center). The foundation of the Antipolis colony is closely related to the expansion of Greeks from Marseille in the 4th century B.C. The Greek town was probably set at the foot of the Antibes cliff under the actual city.

The Grimaldi castle, known these days for the famous Picasso art collection, was built in the Middle-Ages at the top of the Rocher suceeding a vast monumental edifice from the Gallo-Roman period. The foundation...

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References

Bibliographical reference

Petra Urbanova, Eric Delaval, Philippe Lanos, Pierre Guibert, Philippe Dufresne, Claude Ney, Robert Thernot and Philippe Mellinand, « Multi-method dating of Grimaldi castle foundations in Antibes, France », ArcheoSciences, 40 | 2016, 17-33.

Electronic reference

Petra Urbanova, Eric Delaval, Philippe Lanos, Pierre Guibert, Philippe Dufresne, Claude Ney, Robert Thernot and Philippe Mellinand, « Multi-method dating of Grimaldi castle foundations in Antibes, France », ArcheoSciences [Online], 40 | 2016, Online since 30 December 2018, connection on 01 May 2017. URL : http://archeosciences.revues.org/4702 ; DOI : 10.4000/archeosciences.4702

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About the authors

Petra Urbanova

IRAMAT-CRP2A, Institut de Recherche sur les ArchéoMATériaux – Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquée à l’Archéologie, UMR 5060 CNRS-Université de Bordeaux-Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac cedex, France. (Petra.Urbanova@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr)

Eric Delaval

Muséed’archéologie d’Antibes, Bastion Saint-André, 06600 Antibes, France

Philippe Lanos

IRAMAT-CRP2A, Institut de Recherche sur les ArchéoMATériaux – Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquée à l’Archéologie, Géosciences-Rennes, UMR 6118 Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, Bât. 15, CS 74205 - 35042 RENNES Cedex, France

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Pierre Guibert

IRAMAT-CRP2A, Institut de Recherche sur les ArchéoMATériaux – Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquée à l’Archéologie, UMR 5060 CNRS-Université de Bordeaux-Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac cedex, France.

By this author

Philippe Dufresne

IRAMAT-CRP2A, Institut de Recherche sur les ArchéoMATériaux – Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquée à l’Archéologie, Géosciences-Rennes, UMR 6118 Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, Bât. 15, CS 74205 - 35042 RENNES Cedex, France.

Claude Ney

IRAMAT-CRP2A, Institut de Recherche sur les ArchéoMATériaux – Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquée à l’Archéologie, UMR 5060 CNRS-Université de Bordeaux-Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac cedex, France

Robert Thernot

Inrap/Archéologie des Sociétés Méditerranéennes - UMR 5140, Centre archéologique Inrap, 105 rue Serpentine, 13510 Eguilles, France

Philippe Mellinand

Inrap/Centre Camille Jullian. UMR 7299, Centre archéologique Inrap, 105, rue Serpentine, 13510 Eguilles, France

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Copyright

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