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Determination of the chemical composition of medieval glazed pottery from Drastar (Bulgaria) using PIXE/PIGE and LA-ICP-MS

Composition chimique de poterie glaçurée medievale de Drastar (Bulgarie) déterminée par PIXE-PIGE et LA-ICP-MS
Valentina Lyubomirova, Žiga Šmit, Helena Fajfar and Ivelin Kuleff
p. 69-82

Abstracts

Fifteen samples of medieval glazed pottery from Drastar (present day Silistra), Bulgaria, dated between 10th and 18th centuries AD were studied. The element concentration of the glazes was determined by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analysis. The composition of the clay bodies was studied by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) after pelletization of the powdered clay. In addition, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used for characterization of the clay bodies.
After subtraction of the PbO and CuO content, the comparison between the compositions of the clay bodies and the glazes revealed that both the calcareous and the non-calcareous samples were glazed using lead oxide by itself followed by firing in oxidizing atmosphere. Furthermore, it was shown that iron, copper and manganese oxides were used to achieve the desired colors.

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Excerpt

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Outline

1. Introduction
2. Materials ands methods
Materials
Analytical methods
Proton induced X-ray and proton induced gamma-ray emissions
Laser ablation mass spectrometry with inductively plasma
SEM–EDX microanalyses
3. Results
4. Discussions
Chemical composition of the body
Chemical composition of the glaze
Method for glaze production
5. Conclusion

First lines

1. Introduction

From the 4th millennium BC onwards in the Near East region and Egypt alkali glazes were used first for covering steatite and ground quartz vessels (i.e. Egyptian faience) and then clay vessels from the 15th century BC (Tite et al., 1998).

The earliest known lead glazed ceramics in the West were produced during the Roman era (about 1st century BC) (Tite et al., 1998; Wolf et al., 2003; Walton and Tite, 2010) after their appearance in China perhaps a few centuries earlier (Tite et al., 1998).

Evidence of the production of these wares comes from several sites in Anatolia (present-day Turkey) (Walton and Tite, 2010). Subsequently, glazes of this type were extensively used for pottery and tiles throughout the Islamic and Byzantine world and medieval Europe (Wolf et al., 2003). At present their use is continuing in the Near East and Europe (Tite et al., 1998; Wolf et al., 2...

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References

Bibliographical reference

Valentina Lyubomirova, Žiga Šmit, Helena Fajfar and Ivelin Kuleff, « Determination of the chemical composition of medieval glazed pottery from Drastar (Bulgaria) using PIXE/PIGE and LA-ICP-MS », ArcheoSciences, 41-1 | 2017, 69-82.

Electronic reference

Valentina Lyubomirova, Žiga Šmit, Helena Fajfar and Ivelin Kuleff, « Determination of the chemical composition of medieval glazed pottery from Drastar (Bulgaria) using PIXE/PIGE and LA-ICP-MS », ArcheoSciences [Online], 41-1 | 2017, Online since 21 June 2019, connection on 17 August 2017. URL : http://archeosciences.revues.org/4894 ; DOI : 10.4000/archeosciences.4894

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About the authors

Valentina Lyubomirova

Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sofia, James Bourchier 1, 1164-Sofia, Bulgaria. (vlah[@]chem.uni-sofia.bg)

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Žiga Šmit

Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, 19, Jadranska Str., SI-1000 Ljublana, Slovenia – Jožef Stefan Institute, 39, Jamova Str., SI-1000 Ljublana, Slovenia

Helena Fajfar

Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, 19, Jadranska Str., SI-1000 Ljublana, Slovenia

Ivelin Kuleff

Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sofia, James Bourchier 1, 1164-Sofia, Bulgaria

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